Knowledge of Codes on electric cables

Uses of electric wires and cables:

Electric wires and cables are used to transmit electricity (or control signals - control cables) or to connect electrical equipment in industrial and civil works.

How are wires and cables different?

- Conductors consisting of one or several conductive cores, with or without insulation. We often call it wrapped wire or bare wire.

- Cables with conductive cores (still with single-core cables, called single cables), with insulated sheaths and additional protective sheaths. Often these protective enclosures are intended to enhance cable protection against external influences such as impact force, water, ultraviolet rays in sunlight.

Structure of electrical wire and cable

  • Conductor: Copper (copper: Cu) or aluminum (aluminum: Al)
  • Insulation layer: PVC or XLPE
  • Fillers: PP yarn (Polypropylene)
  • Wrap tape: non-woven tape
  • Inner sheath: PVC or PE
  • Metal armor: DATA, DSTA, SWA ...
  • Outer sheath: PCV, PE or HPPE ...

Classify

+ Classification according to conductor structure:

Rigid conductor civil wire (one stranded or 7 stranded)

Electric wire, flexible conductor (many strands are twisted together)

+ Classification by number of conductors:

Single wire: Cu / PVC 1x… .mm2

Double wire: Cu / PVC / PVC 2x… .mm2

Conductor three strands: Cu / PVC / PVC 3x… .mm2

+ Classification by shape of cover:

  • Civil wire wrapped round
  • Oval household wire
  • Insulated civil wire (sup wire) ...

The identification symbols

- Cu: copper conductor conductor

- Al: aluminum conductor

- PVC: insulation (sheath) of PVC

- XLPE: insulators (sheath - twisted cables only) with XLPE

- ATA, DATA: protection layer with aluminum tape (commonly used in Muller cables)

- STA, DSTA: protection layer with steel tape (often used in underground cable)

- SWA: protective layer made of steel wire (often used in underground cable)

- CV, CVV: Copper conductor cable, PVC insulation, PVC sheathed

- CXV: Copper conductor cable, XLPE insulated, PVC sheathed

- CVV (CXV) / DSTA (SWA): copper conductor underground cable, PVC insulated (XLPE), armored with steel tape (steel fiber), sheathed with PVC

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